The Renaissance was a cultural movement and time period in the History of Europe considered to mark the end of the Middle Ages The Middle Ages. This movement began in Italy in the 14th century and the term, literally meaning "rebirth", describes the revival of interest in the artistic achievements of the Classical world, Greek and Roman culture. Leonardo da Vinci was the archetypal Renaissance man representing the humanistic values of the period in his art, science and writing. Michelangelo and Raphael were also major figures in this movement, producing works regarded for centuries as embodying the classical notion of perfection. Renaissance architects included Alberti, Brunelleschi and Bramante. The Renaissance culminated in Italy in the 16th century and influenced other parts of Europe in a great variety of ways.